Have you ever thought that a glossy sheet of gold, a piece of gum or aluminum wire has the same property? If talking about chemistry, all are ductile materials. So, do you know anything about ductile definition chemistry?
According to the chemistry glossary, ductility means that a metal’s property can be stretched without breaking.
It’s quite simple, but enough? Of course, not. That’s why we will give a detailed explanation of this definition in such a way that you can understand thoroughly.
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Ductility Explained: Definition and Examples
Now, let’s continue bringing out the meaning of the ductility! It’s the measure of a material’s capacity to plastically contort without breaking when being put under a tensile stress that surpasses its yield power. High ductility points out that a material will become more suitable to contort and not break. Meanwhile, low ductility implies that a material is breakable and can fracture before contorting much under a tensile load.
It can be said that ductility depends mainly on the crystal structure and chemical composition of a material and the temp that the ductility is being measured.
One of the great examples of ductility is bridges, especially some constructed of steel. Suppose a seismic activity happens like aftershocks or earthquakes, what then? The bridge will withstand thanks to the metal’s ductility. To the concrete, stretching of the steel during the seism acts as a great prevention to prevent the bridge from incurring or breaking.
Ductility materials: Extra information
The use of metals, especially in metalworking, will give you a clear look at ductility in action. For instance, you might think about jewelers or goldsmiths when mentioning metalworking. Truly, it is just a process of working with metals to generate metal products. So, do you have any idea of the term for a material that is known to be the opposite of ductility? It’s brittleness. Instead of lengthening and stretching, the brittle materials such as cast iron, glass products or concrete can break when experiencing too much tensile stress.
It seems that metals keep the upper hand when talking about kinds of ductile materials, doesn’t it? Let’s see another example of a non-metal material that is ductile as well. Have you ever chewed gum? Yes, of course. Start chewing and try observing the gum when stretching it. It lengthens without breaking, doesn’t it? Moreover, the gum keeps at that length without turning back to its original shape.
Ductility vs Malleability
In some cases, some mistake ductility for malleability. Truly, they are not the same. As outlined above, ductility is a material’s property that can extend without getting broken. Meanwhile, malleability is a material’s property that can contort under compression. And the malleable metals can be beaten or rolled into sheets (e.g. aluminum foil).
In other words, ductility implies that a metal can be altered to another form by twisting, pulling or compressing. Meanwhile, malleability indicates that the metal can be changed in another form via hitting or beating it hard.
A common example of the difference between ductility and malleability is lead. This metal is highly malleability but not highly ductile because of its crystal structure. As you know, the crystal structure of the metals controls how they will contort under stress. And the atomic particles that take shape metals can contort under stress either by stretching away or slipping over each other. Besides, the crystal structure of the ductile metals permits the atoms of the metals to be stretched farther apart, called a “twinning” process.
Let’s take a look at the summary below!
- The properties of ductility and malleability make the metals contort.
- Ductility is known as the property of the material that might extend without getting broken. Meanwhile, malleability is known as the property of the material that can contort under compression.
- The metal’s ductility is measured by checking its tensile power. And the bend test is the ordinarily used test for deciding the ductility of the metal.
- The malleability of the metals is determinedvia checking whether or not it might endure without getting damaged.
- Ductility mentions the capacity of the metal to turn into its form under tensile stress while malleability mentions the capacity of the metal to alter its form under compressive stress.
- The ductile metals can be stretched into wires; meanwhile, the malleable ones can be beaten and rolled into sheets.
With all above information, we hope that you can understand ductile definition chemistry thoroughly. And don’t miss reading other articles related to this interesting fieldsince you’re guaranteed to increase your knowledge of chemistry better than ever.
If you want to know anything about nonvolatile definition chemistry, don’t miss important information that we’re going to mention below. Truly, this knowledge is what you learned from school. And we just summarize the main ideas in order to help you understand better.
You can see more: Factors Affecting The Chemicals In Life
Nonvolatile definition in chemistry
A nonvolatile substance is a substance which does not readily vapor under existing conditions. This is mostly due to their powerful intermolecular forces. The common features of such substances are a lower vapor pressure and high boiling points. In addition, the presence of a solute in a solvent reduces the capacity of that certain solvent to evaporate. But, after evaporation, the nonvolatile solute won’t appear in the vapor phase of the volatile solvent.
Let’s look at some typical examples!
- Glycerin (C3H8O3) is a nonvolatile liquid. It’s truly a neutral, colorless, sweet-tasting, and thick liquid that freezes to a gummy paste. That’s why glycerin is most commonly used in soap and is also a familiar ingredient in lots of pharmaceuticals.
- Sugar (sucrose) is a nonvolatile solid. It’s known as a common table sugar that is acquired from sugar cane or sugar beets. In addition, it’s found in fruits and vegetables.
- Salt (sodium chloride) is another nonvolatile solid. This inorganic compound is essential for our body because it helps us maintain blood pressure and the correct balance of fluid, contract and relax muscles, absorb and transfer nutrients, and convey nerve signals.
- And so on
Generally, it’s not difficult to determinethe nonvolatile substances if you take into account the materials’ properties that are volatile. You can easily recognize some common volatile substances such as gasoline, perfume or alcoholvia their typical smell. Meanwhile, you don’t smell the nonvolatile materials since they don’t transform from solids or liquids into the vapor phase.
How about volatility in chemistry?
Actually, the best way to know which substance is nonvolatile and volatile is to rely on its smell. You can easily recognize the smell of alcohol surrounding since it readily releases its molecules into the air. So, the volatile substance is the substance that has a higher ability to turn into the vapor phase. It also has much weaker intermolecular attractions. That’s why it can be easily transferred into the vapor phase. Plus, it comes with a high vapor pressure and low boiling point.
Most of the organic substances are volatile because they can be easily divided via distillation or rotating evaporators. Besides, they can evaporate at room temperature when exposed to air because of the weak intermolecular forces. What’s more, you should notice some harmfulvolatile substances because whenreleasing in the atmosphere, they can easily penetrate into your systems through inhalation. From there, they might create dangerous effects on chronic exposure. Or even these substances can bring bad effects on the environment such as ozone layer depletion or global warming.
Difference between nonvolatile and volatile substances
Here are 5 main differences between nonvolatile and volatile substances that you should know.
- Nonvolatile substances don’t have a high vapor pressure at normal room temperature and pressure while volatile ones come with a high vapor pressure in these conditions.
- Nonvolatile substances are generally hardly flammable compared to volatile ones.
- Nonvolatile substances don’t have a tendency to vaporize while the volatile ones do.
- It’s not easy to detect the nonvolatile substances by smell; however, you can smell the volatile substances.
- The volume of the nonvolatile liquids won’t decrease if being heated or stored in an open container. But, this happens to volatile liquids.
Watch this video to know more about this difference
To bring out the final conclusion of nonvolatile definition chemistry. Please memorize two important things.
- Nonvolatile substances are hard to be transformed to the gaseous phase and they come with higher boiling points and low vapor phase. In contrast, volatile substances can be readily sent into the vapor phase and have the low boiling points.
- Most of the nonvolatile substances are polar with a powerful interaction between molecules. Meanwhile, the volatile ones are nonpolar and have the weak intermolecular forces. That’s why they don’t have any powerful intermolecular attractions.
Generally, we hope that this article helps you draw a specific look at the nonvolatile and volatile definitions in chemistry. And if you’re interested in this field, you can easily find lots of useful posts here. Check for further information now!
How deep is the ocean? How do volcanoes run? Why do eclipses happen? How does photosynthesis happen?
Thousands year ago, answering these question is not an easy thing. Even, people didn’t know what is called volcano or what photosynthesis is. But now, everything has changed thanks to the appearance of science, especially Earth Science.
And the truth is that we can easily find the answer for each above question because all are explained carefully by scientists and researchers.
So, are you curious about the Earth Science? What is it? Why does investigating it help to solve lots of issues in our life? Does it have any connection to other sciences? Just follow us and then all your queries will be answered right away.
What is the Earth Science?
Literally, it is the study of the Earth as well as its neighbors in space. With a variety of exciting and practical applications, this subject is always interesting to learn. Lots of Earth scientists avail their knowledge of the Earth in order to discover and advance energy and mineral resources in life. Also, they have studied the influence of human activity on Earth’s environment and illustrated methods to safeguard the planet.
It can be said that Earth Science is a huge term that includes lots of aspects. Normally, the Earth scientists only study one aspect and then work with the others to answer the complex questions about the Earth.
Try watching this video to know clearly about the Earth Science!
What are the sciences that are included in Earth Science? A lot, actually. But, instead of listing all, we only focus on four main areas to ensure that you can understand basic information first.
Four main branches of Earth Science
1.Science of the Earth – Geology
When it comes to the Earth Science, the geology is considered as the first primary branch. It’s the investigation of the geosphere or rock parts of the Earth. The scientists and researchers in this field are mainly studying things about the movement of the Earth’s continents, volcanoes, rock types, sedimentation, earthquakes, or erosion.
2.Science of the atmosphere – Meteorology
Meteorology is the study of our atmosphere, weather, and climate. It’s known as a practical science because we all care about the weather. For instance, how weather changes over time in response to people’s actions is always an urgent concern worldwide.
And those who are working as meteorologists often study items related to humidity, precipitation, atmospheric layers, pressure, heat transfer, global air circulation, etc. They also read and interpret the weather map in order to assess the weather patterns in weeks and months.
3.Science of the Universe – Astronomy
Why do we talk about the astronomy? Does it have any concern with the Earth Science? Of course, yes. Let’s see some examples below and then you will understand.
Do you know that the appearance of the moon affects the ocean’s tidal system every month? Do you know that the energy from the Sun drives out our climate and weather? Do you know that the asteroid effects have regularly devastated inhabitants on Earth?
That’s why studying astronomy is extremely critical to help us understand the Earth. From that point, astronomers also avail their knowledge of Earth materials, history and processes to explore and learn about other planets.
4.Science of the Oceans – Oceanography
We all know that our Earth’s surface holds about 71% water and has 5 main oceans consisting of Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Southern, and Arctic.
For this reason, the Earth’s oceans have become the necessary resources for different areas such as energy source, food, and other commodities. Even, the oceans play an important influence on the weather. And any change in the oceans can moderate or dive the climate change.
Via studying the oceans, the oceanographers work together to develop the ocean as an important resource as well as protecting it from human impact.
Is the Earth Science important?
A big YES, of course.
Today, we are living in a period when our Earth and people face up to lots of challenges all the times.
When the climate is changing, that means this is being created by human activities. Therefore, the Earth scientists try to help us recognize this issue and learn how to deal with it. In addition, they are challenged to discover new sources of metal or other minerals since the available ones are gradually disappeared. Plus, they need to develop new sources of energy that can create minimal impacts on our climate and decide how our Earth is increasing population can survive and avoid severe threats like earthquake, volcanoes, floods, landslides, etc.
Since the Earth Science covers all aspects from the deep inner core to the exterior layers of the atmosphere, what we want to highlight from the beginning to end is that this science is extremely critical and necessary in our life.
Generally speaking, reading this article points out the definition and importance of the Earth Science. Moreover, it explains necessary information about four main branches including geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. What’s more, you soon find out that there are close connections between them.
And don’t mind following us to get updated news about this interesting topic!
What is health? According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health is not only a state of full physical, metal, and social happiness but also the absence of disease or weakness. It can be said that health is the level of metabolic or functional effectiveness of a living being.
What does disease mean? It’s an unusual state that happens at an organism of a person. It might be caused by exterior factors or inner dysfunctions. In humans, it is usually used more widely to mention any condition that creates pain, distress, dysfunction, social issues, or even death.
So, you can recognize that human health is often influenced by different factors such as biological, nutritional, psychological and chemical.
And the question today is whether the environment has any impacts on our health. The truth is that the environment always has a straight and close relationship on those living on it. More importantly, the recent diseases are the result of human’s maladjustment to his environment.
Overview of the relationship between environment and human health
A study from WHO has pointed out that about 13 million people die each year and the major cause starts from the environment. In many countries, among 100 dead persons have 10 deaths due to air pollution or unsanitary water. And the saddest thing is that the main victims are all almost children under 5.
Besides, the development of the society has created extra factors, making the environmental pollution more seriously. They include ultraviolet radiation, noise, the chemical use in agriculture, climate changes, etc. Moreover, the number of people who are suffering from cancer or neurological and functional effects of the endocrine is highly increasing.
So, the fact is that the more modern our society is, the more our environment has been downgraded.
Air pollution and human health
When it comes to the environment, the first thing that most people think about is the quality of air. We all know that living in a pollution-free environment will give us a better life. However, the issue is whether or not we know how atmospheric contamination influences us.
Among 13 million deaths worldwide are about seven million ones due to the air pollution. Concentration and development of the population in big cities as well as the way in which we use up energy through heating and air conditioning system or transporting result in an awful emission of gases that are extremely dangerous to our health.
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), there are six main substances creating the air pollution consisting of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), lead (Pb), and Carbon Monoxide (CO).
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
A person exposed to SO2 has a higher occurrence of shortness of breath, cough, fatigue colds of long duration, and bronchitis. In the atmosphere, the SO2 will be converted to sulfate salts, which can be removed via a process of forming sediment in liquid or washout along with precipitation, so creating acidic rainwater.
Particulate Matter (PM)
The particulate matter (PM) might affect the human body on setting and causing external effects such as effects on the skin. But, particular groups of PMs may pass into the bloodstream and act as a systematic poison. In the respiratory tract, the effect depends on the size of the PM, penetration deposition, its solubility, and clearance mechanism.
With 5 PMs, they might cause irritation of bronchospasm, allergic alveolitis, and pulmonary edema. Meanwhile, the certain molds of the bigger particulate matter may cause obstructive lung disease.
Breathing ozone may lead to an array of health issues such as coughing, congestion, chest pain, and throat irritation. Even, it might bring about asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. “Bad” ozone can diminish lung function and provoke the linings of the lungs as well.
No matter what your health condition is good or bad, you will experience hard breathing when exposed to ozone pollution. Since ozone usually forms in hot weather, if you often spend times outdoors in the summer, you can be affected.
In addition, the ground-level ozone damages ecosystem and vegetation. It causes reduced commercial forest yields and agricultural crop, increased susceptibility to diseases, or reduced development and survivability of tree seedlings. What’s more, the ground-level ozone hurts the foliage of plants and trees as well as influencing the landscapes of cities, parks, forests, and recreation areas.
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
Nitrogen Dioxide is a risky air pollutant since it contributes to the development of photochemical smog, which brings dangerous impacts on human health. Although some NO2 are created naturally in the atmosphere by lightning or produced by water, plants, and solid, only 1% is found in the big cities. Meanwhile, its main source is from motor vehicle exhaust (nearly 80%).
If you’re living in the raised levels of NO2, the easy-to-recognize effect is an increased chance of respiratory issues. The NO2 provokes the lining of your lungs and it can decrease immunity to lung infections. Additionally, it can create some troubles such as coughing, wheezing, flu, chest pain, colds, or even bronchitis. What’s more, the high degree of NO2 can bring about serious influences on people with asthma since it may cause more intense and frequent attacks.
Lead particles from the atmosphere might be inhaled and settle down as dust in surrounding areas such as on vegetation or water. So, it’s easy for us to ingest them. Amongst the entire estimated release of lead from the vehicles, around 50-70% is delivered as emission into the environment. And this may damage our nervous system, kidneys, reproductive system and even cause high blood pressure.
Children tend to absorb lead more than adults. If they are exposed to lead, they might show lack of intelligence, decrease the ability to focus and catch some behavioral problems. Besides, lead is especially dangerous for pregnant women and infants. It can be gathered in bones for decades and released during pregnancy and lactation. And this is the serious case that causes neurological issues in the developing children.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Carbon Monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless and poisonous gas. Although it comes with no detectable odor, CO is usually mixed with other gases. So, you might inhale CO together with other gases without recognizing that CO is present.
In the process of respiration, Carbon Monoxide is extremely dangerous since it replaces oxygen in the blood as well as taking oxygen away from the heart, brain, and other important organs. A huge amount of CO can overcome you in some minutes with no warning, making you lose suffocate and consciousness.
Aside from six major substances, the effects of indoor air pollutants might create a range of short-term issues of eye and throat irritation to long-term problems of cancer and respiratory diseases. According to WHO, the indoor air pollutants are one of the most dreadful things because we often spend most of the times at home. In a recent report, there are about 3.3 million deaths relating to the indoor pollution.
Water pollution and human health
Water is the main source of our life and one of the significant factors influencing human sustenance. So, if water is polluted, it will be the dangerous thing to us. We cannot live without drinking water, but we also cannot drink the contaminated water. And the water pollution may happen on different levels and influence human health in various ways.
Creatures that create diseases in water are often called pathogens. They consist of viruses, bacteria, and other parasitic creatures that might infect human beings and cause illness. Some common diseases that mainly caused by pathogens in water include cholera, polio, typhoid, dysentery, and hepatitis.
These illnesses are especially harmful to young children. According to the latest statistic, there are about 60% of early childhood deaths worldwide due to this trouble. Although sewage treatment plants have decreased the incident of water-released diseases in some countries, less developed nations still strive for finding fresh and safe water. China, parts of India, and Africa is typical examples of water-related diseases.
Aside from the pathogens in water, the low amounts of the chemical pollutants in water supplies are also dangerous to human health. These pollutants penetrate into the water sources as drain water from kitchen or bathrooms or as runoff from agricultural fields.
The relationship between environment and human health is extremely important. We all know this, right? But, their interactions seem to be complex and hard to assess. And via this article, hope you recognize how the air and water pollution affect us. Besides, we need to know how to harmonize this connection in the process of development since protecting the environment means protecting us.
From the industrial period, humans have sent a considerable number of chemicals into the environment. Although some help to kill pests and weeds, most of the chemicals are waste from agricultural and industrial processes. Even worse, factories or plants ignore the handling of chemical waste that often leads to a serious result to the water supply. And when streams, rivers, and oceans were poisoned, not only aquatic life suffer but also humans.
If you want to know clearly about damaging effects of wastewater on our life, let’s find out everything in this post below.
Toxic chemicals in the wastewater
Phenol is known as an inexpensive organic material that is usually used in manufacturing plastic, rubber or pharmaceutical products. Due to a low-cost price, it’s produced in huge quantities, mostly as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals like caprolactam or used as synthetic fibers, nylon, bisphenol A, etc.
The maximum number of phenol in a liter of seawater is 5 mg, according to the Australian National Regulations. However, if the content of phenol excesses this number, it becomes poisonous to fishes, birds, and any animals. Moreover, it reduces fertility and life expectancy.
How does it affect human? Unlike other toxins such as heavy metal, phenol doesn’t gather in our body. But, it can break down quickly. Especially, phenol in manufacturing rubber products and tires is able to increase cardiovascular diseases than normal. If you catch some symptoms such as cyanosis, shortness of breath, rapid pulse, reduced body temperature, muscle weakness, and coma, your body is infected by phenol via either skin or digestive absorption.
Similar to phenol, cyanide is a chemical substance used in producing iron, steel or other chemicals and treating sewage. Besides, cyanide and cyanide compounds are one of the parts of pesticides, electroplates, plastics, and mining. Unlike phenol, just a small amount of cyanide creates a damaging effect on fishes and aquatic animals because they are extremely sensitive to this chemical.
If the free cyanide in water ranges from 5-7.2 mg per liter of water, it can lessen inhibit preproduction and swimming performance in fish. In case cyanide excesses 20 mg per liter of water, it can kill many kinds of fishes. And if it is over 200 mg, it becomes toxic to all species.
So, when we’re eating these food products, we’re easily exposed to low concentrations of cyanide. The more we eat, the more cyanide causes serious health effects. Some initial symptoms are dizziness, headache, rapid breathing, vomiting, weak pulse, drowsiness, nausea, and red face. Or some worst conditions can happen such as slow heart rate, convulsions, coma, dilated pupils, and even death.
Ferric hydroxide takes oxygen from the seawater, oxidizes ferric iron and then hydrolyze it into iron oxide slurry. This chemical substance is able to absorb some toxic substances contained in wastewater. After that, it brings toxin to remote places and settle into the seabed, causing damaging secondary effects.
Aside from three above chemicals, scientists find other metals in wastewater such as copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, and nickel. While some are necessary for our bodies, some might be dangerous if we consume a larger portion.
Common diseases caused by wastewater
Not only does wastewater contain toxic chemicals to our environment and body but also hold a significant number of viruses, bacteria, and parasites that are dangerous to humans.
A bacterium called “vibrio cholerae” is the main cause of a small intestinal disease, known as cholera. You easily acquire these bacteria when drinking or eating contaminated food, even vegetables that have been irrigated with poisoned water. Some usual symptoms that you might catch include vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and abdominal cramps.
Diarrhea is one of the most widespread diseases caused by wastewater. It leads to frequent passage of water and loose stools, causing dehydration and even death to infants and young children. To prevent this disease, you shouldn’t drink or eat anything from unsafe sources. And remember to boil the drinking water or use chemically treated water.
When you get symptoms ranging from mild to extreme diarrhea with blood and mucus, you might catch amoebiasis, which is caused by amoeba in contaminated water.
Every year, around 12 million people are caught typhoid fever that is caused when absorbing contaminated water and food into their body. Some common symptoms are the loss of appetite, nausea, fever, constipation, vomiting, and headache.
Parasitic intestinal worms such as whipworms, roundworms or hookworms are often transferred through contaminated food and soil with human feces. According to a recent study, over 10% of people, especially children, have these worms inside their body that might cause growth retardation, anemia, and malnutrition.
Schistosomiasis (also called bilharzia) is caused by worms that are expanded by freshwater snails living in contaminated water. When we wash, swim or wade through these areas, the snails can penetrate our skin to cause infection and damage our intestines, liver, lungs, and bladder.
Due to lacking wastewater treatment, extreme amounts of the phosphorus and nitrogen can invade water sources and create algae bloom. This process is harmful to fish because it avails a lot of oxygen in the water. Furthermore, it comes with an objectionable and strong smell that can influence the taste of water. What’s more, excessive nitrogen in water is injurious to humans since it causes blue baby syndrome or methemoglobinemia or miscarriages.
Hope that this post has helped you understand more about damaging effects of wastewater on our life. And if you have any query related to this topic, don’t mind asking us anything. We’re always there to support you.
Do you know that our body is made of chemicals and everything surrounding us is made of chemicals as well? Moreover, everything we see, hear, touch, taste, and smell relate to chemistry and chemical matters. Actually, seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling concern complex series of chemical reactions and interactions in everyone’s body. And tons of changes we discover around the world are caused by chemical reactions.
So, stop thinking that chemistry just happens in laboratories. It appears everywhere and occurs in our daily life. And this post helps you understand more about this field.
First, learn what chemical reaction is
When making mention of the chemicals, people usually think about toxic things such as acid, drain cleaner, bleach, etc. Of course, you’re not wrong because they’re clearly chemicals.
A chemical is a material that has a particular chemical composition. A chemical reaction is known as a process where a set of chemical substances responds with each other to lead to different transformations. The first substances used the reaction are generally called reactants while the last ones formed after the reaction are defined as a product. Depending on the reaction is started with or without energy, there are two distinct types including spontaneous reaction (happens on its own) and non-spontaneous reaction (needs energy for operation).
The chemical reactions occur more than you think. For instance, when eating food, our body uses it as the chemical energy and then turn it into the molecules that the body need to live. This process is called digestion.
And below are a couple of examples of the chemical reactions in our daily life that you might not notice in the past.
Some chemical reactions that we face every day
Photosynthesis is a familiar chemical reaction wherein plants produce their own food. This happens in presence of sunlight and other raw materials, especially water and carbon dioxide. Then the chlorophyll pigment collects the light energy from sunlight which is transformed into glucose via the phenomenon of photosynthesis.
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light Energy ➜ C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Do you know that performing physical movements is related to the chemical reaction? This process needs energy that is produced by aerobic respiration. Breathing helps to destroy glucose into water, energy, and carbon dioxide in the form of adenosine triphosphate. In short, it is the opposite of photosynthesis.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2+ 6H2O + Energy (36 ATPs)
If aerobic respiration is contrary to the photosynthesis, the anaerobic respiration is the opposite of the aerobic respiration. It’s described as a set of chemical reactions that permits cells to obtain energy from intricate molecules without oxygen.
When you perform prolonged and intense exercise, your body cells carry out anaerobic respiration. This process is responsible for muscle cramps and lactic acid synthesis. It’s also observed in some yeast, bacteria, and other organisms. Against the aerobic type, the anaerobic respiration breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen, producing carbon dioxide, energy, and ethanol.
C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy
One of the most typical examples of the anaerobic respiration is fermentation. It’s the conversion of intricate substances to simpler ones via anaerobic conditions. For instance, wine produced from fruits is a result of yeast fermentation of alcohol while the beer is from grain. Antibiotics are acquired through fermentation by some bacteria and molds. Leavened bread is a product of yeast fermentation. Vinegar, yogurt, and cheese are obtained via bacterial fermentation.
Burning of fuels is another obvious and familiar chemical reaction in our daily life. Every day as you drive to school or work, you’re burning gas. Or you burn wood for a campfire or use a gas stove for cooking. All are called combustion, which happens as oxygen and other substances combine, creating heat and often light.
C3H8 + 5O2 → 4H2O + 3CO2 + energy
The above chemical equation is found in some fireplaces and gas grills.
Instead of occurring violently and quickly like combustion does, some chemical reactions take a long time to happen. And it’s called rusting. This process results from an oxidation reaction when oxygen and iron combine to create iron oxide, forming a red or brown color. For example, an iron turns a red or brown color when it’s exposed for a long time. And below is the equation for the iron’s rusting.
Fe + O2 + H2O → Fe2O3. XH2O
Gastric acid is formed by hydrochloric acid and huge quantities of sodium chloride and potassium chloride that is produced by the cells in the peptic glands. It helps to change pepsinogen to pepsin that causes the modification of the proteins in the stomach. Besides, it eliminates the micro-organisms in the food before they can badly affect your health. What’s more, the hydrochloric acid helps to neutralize the acid in the food when you eat, maintaining the level of acid and alkalinity and keeping you healthy.
Perspiration is known as a way that our body cools itself. Body odor mostly comes from the Apocrine glands, which are in ears, armpits, genitals, breasts, and hair follicles that turn into active at the beginning of puberty. Depending on the various presence of proteins and fatty acids in the body, the sweat that these glands deliver has a slight yellow color. And the bacteria that grow on the skin destroy the emission of the Apocrine glands and form smelly odors. That’s why you can smell different odors from different people.
8.Soap and stain removers
Soap is made by the reaction between an alkali and fatty acid. This process generates a molecule with one hydrophilic and one lipophilic ends. Both get absorbed in the soap and are often washed away with water, leaving a clean surface. Soap and stain removers work as emulsifiers which permit water and oil to mix. Thanks to the oily mixture, difficult stains can be removed after applying soap or stain removers with water.
In a word, there are tons of chemical reactions in our daily life. No matter what you’re cooking, fermenting, burning, sourcing, etc., you always face them every day. Therefore, don’t mind updating necessary information about this field so that you can understand the importance of chemistry in life.
What is “chemical”?
Maybe most of us will connect chemicals with test tubes, experimental flasks, or the “hazard” signs like skull and crossbones. In fact a chemical is an element, the element is the purest form of chemical known to man.When multiple elements combine, a chemical compound is formed. Anything made up of matter, or anything that is considered a solid, liquid, or gas, is made up of chemicals.
Are all chemicals dangerous?
Of course No. A large number of chemicals not only quite safe but also can make our life better, more convenient and pleasurable.Even the human body is made of chemicals. Just as Margot Wallstrom the former Vice President of the European Commission said “chemicals are a blessing and a curse”.
Can we live without Chemical?
Life without chemistry? We would be back to the stone age! Chemicals play a vital role in our survival, nearly everything a person uses throughout the day is composed of chemicals. They are combined in different ways as to create different substances—from the water one drinks to the gasoline that provides the energy for an automobile.
How does chemistry change life?
The answer lies in our basic life needs: clothing, eating, housing, and transportation etc.
Clothing: Textile chemical crafts make our clothes fabrics more various;printing and dyeing chemical process makes our clothes more colorful and beautiful; washing chemical process helps us remove the stain and make our cloth as clean as new…
Eating: Chemical swelling agent brings us the delicious food such as bread , cake, steam bun and so on; chemical edible pigment makes our food more colorful and beautiful, which can raise our appetite, increase the secretion of digestive juice, and conducive to digestion and absorption;chemical nutrition fortifier compensates nutritional defects in natural food,help to balance nutrition…
Housing: Chemical corrosion-resistant materials make our house and other buildings more rugged and safer; chemical building adhesives make our house more delicate and strict; chemical coatings make our house more beautiful, and home more warm and sweet…
Transportation: Chemical rubber technology brings us durable automobile tires; petrochemical provides the fuels for auto-mobile, ship and plan to move; materials chemical make our transportation tools more firm, safe and beautiful…