12 Amazing Things About SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy Rocket

At the beginning of February 2018, SpaceX has launched the most powerful rocket, called the Falcon Heavy. It took off from Cape Canaveral, Florida and carried its first cargo – a red Tesla roadster – into the orbit. This launch marks the first time a vehicle has been sent up by a commercial company.

It can be said that launching the Falcon Heavy rocket sets the bar for space launches in the future. Now, we will show you 12 amazing things about SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket so that you can understand better.

1. All about the Falcon’s name

If you are a fan of Star Wars, you definitively know a character named Han Solo. He is a captain of his ship, the Millennium Falcon.


2. It’s a massive rocket

The Falcon Heavy rocket is measured 230 feet (70 meters) tall. Although it looks impressive, it’s not the biggest one if compared with NASA’s Saturn V rocket (330 feet = 111 meters).


3. It’s designed to be reusable

The initial goal of SpaceX was the growth of a system of reusable spaceships. As you know, one of the biggest cost factors behind rockets was that they had to build a new one for every launch. Elon Musk, the company’s CEO, also compared it to if planes had to be canceled after each flight.

That’s why SpaceX concentrated on how to return its spaceship to Earth without catching any problem. Last year, this company did when trying toland a Falcon 9 booster onto a pilotless aircraft in the Atlantic.

After the first successful landing, SpaceX has continued landing more than 20 Falcon 9 back on Earth safely.


4. It includes 3 rockets

If the last year’s Falcon 9 has only one booster rocket, the Falcon Heavy has three ones including one core booster and two first-stage ones.

Thanks to the three booster rockets, the Falcon Heavy is known as one of the most powerful operational ones, boasting up to 5 million pounds of thrust. Relying on that, it can carry 70 tons of payload into space.

One of the greatest moments of this launch was when the two first-stage boosters landed in sync back to Earth at a landing area. However, the core booster didn’t land successfully and fell into the landing drone ship in the ocean.


5. To be known as the rocket car

Normally, when a new rocket is launched, the cargo is a concrete block. But, Musk reckoned that it was boring and changed for a cherry-red Tesla roadster with a dummy astronaut in the driver’s seat. This vehicle is placed atop the Falcon Heavy’s second stage.


6. It can transport whales

For a trip to Earth orbit, the Falcon Heavy can transport up to 140,700 pounds. This weight is equivalent to two humpback whales. But, when it flies too Mars, it just holds 37,000 pounds which are estimated 31 grand pianos.


7. See the car in space

The Tesla Roadster has some cameras mounted on it in order to transfer a 24/7 live stream.


8. This rocket reaches Mars and beyond

Musk posted a tweet on his Twitter to celebrate the Falcon Heavy’s third successful burn. The second-stage with attached Tesla roadster might be in an elliptical orbit surrounding the Sun for millions or billions of years. And at the press conference, the company’s CEO joked that perhaps aliens would discover it.


9. Some interesting things on the Tesla Roadster

  • There are a small roadster and spaceman on the dashboard.
  • Additionally, there is a display of “Don’t Panic!” on the dashboard’s screen.
  • A statement of “Made on Earth by humans” is printed on the car’s circuit board.
  • The names of 6,000 SpaceX employees are engraved in a plague in the car.
  • A digital copy of sci-fi books from Isaac Asimov’s Foundation is kept in the vehicle.


10. The rocket has taken longer than planned

Concepts for the roadster were first introduced in 2004, and SpaceX revealed the plan at a 2011 conference. Although an early test flight was planned to take place in 2013, it was delayed by 5 years because of structural challenges.


11. The Falcon Heavy isn’t too expensive

Launching the Falcon Heavy rocket didn’t cost too much. The price for each flight is around $90 million which is known as a small number when it comes to space launches.


12. SpaceX is ready to carry out the next steps

Elton Musk affirmed that the Falcon Heavy is settled to be a payload rocket and will be launched again in three to six months. And it will be used to transfer cargos like satellites for both the military and private companies, similar to the Falcon 9.

He also confirmed that this rocket might send off twice as much cargo as otherspacecrafts in the world. It can launch things right to Mars, Pluto and even beyond.

After the Falcon Heavy, SpaceX is developing another larger rocket called the Big Falcon Rocket (BFR). If you’re familiar with the game Doom, you will know a gun named BFG8000 (though F in this game means F******).

This rocket will avail 31 engines and is able to carry 150 tons which are twice than the Falcon Heavy can. And its purpose is to bring people on space for explorations, like reaching Mars. However, we have to wait for more three or four years to see its launch.

Generally, the test launch of SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket is a big BOOM. And after reading all the 12 amazing things about this rocket, what do you think? Just WOW, right?

Watch a video below to get a closer look at the Falcon Heavy Rocket test flight!


How Does Chemistry Affect Our World?

To be exact, chemistry is everywhere. We are made of chemicals and everything we taste, smell, touch, see, and hear involves chemistry and chemicals. Tasting, smelling, touching, seeing and hearing all include complicated series of chemicals reactions and interactions in our body. And lots of change we eye in the world surrounding are created by chemical reactions.

If you still think that chemistry is at laboratories or beakers, you are wrong because it’s around us. And the better you know chemistry, the better you understand the world.

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Importance of chemistry – What you should know

First of all, please understand that chemistry is the study of atoms, molecules, and combinations that make up the matter in the universe, consisting of the ways they combine, change, and interact to create new ones.

However, to some people, chemistry is believed as a complex and boring science since they have to apply logic and math in studying chemistry. So, do you think that fireworks or explosions are boring? Of course, not, right? When you understand the basics of how the matter works, you feel enthusiastic in the study of chemistry.

It’s time to look at some explanations below to know the importance of chemistry!


You’re using chemistry to decide which cleaner is good for yourself, dishes, clothes, home, etc. You apply chemistry when using disinfectants, bleaches and even mixing soap and water together.


Learning about chemistry helps you understand how food changes when you cook it, how to preserve food, how the food spoils, how your body consumes the food, how ingredients mix to make food and so on.


When you are aware of the basic chemistry, you will understand how drugs, vitamins, and supplements can help or damage your body. Besides, developing and testing new medical medicines and treatments is related to the study of the chemistry.

Environmental issues

Do you know that the chemistry is at the essence of environmental issues? What makes a chemical a pollutant and another chemical a nutrient? Is there any chance to clean up the environment? How can we produce the things we need without damaging the environment? And so on.

The truth is that you can be a chemist because you use chemicals every day and do chemical reactions without noticing much about them such as breathing, eating, or sitting somewhere to read this article. Even your body is made of chemicals as well.

In a word, every matter is made of chemicals and the importance of chemistry is the study of everything on Earth.

Continue taking a glance at chemistry in our daily life

Now, you easily recognize that chemistry is an essential part of your daily life as well as how it affects the world, right? You find it in the air you breathe, the food you eat, the objects you touch, your emotions, and so on. Let’s check now interesting examples that prove chemistry in everyday life.

View your body

We all know that the body is mostly water which is oxygen and hydrogen. Nearly 99% of the mass of your human body is made of 6 important elements including oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Only 0.85% is formed by five other elements such as sodium, magnesium, Sulphur, potassium, and chlorine. Of course, all these elements are necessary to your life.

Feel your emotions

In a day, you can experience different emotions like excitement, envy, jealousy, infatuation, etc. And they are a result of chemical messengers, mainly neurotransmitters. For instance, the feeling of being in love is due to an acceleration of dopamine and phenylethylamine. Or the pounding heart and sweaty palms of infatuation are caused by a high level of norepinephrine.

Your eyes tear when cutting onions

The onions are harmless. But when you cut an onion, your eyes might burst of tears. Why?

After slicing into an onion, amino acid sulfoxides create sulfenic acids. Then enzymes are free to combine with the sulfenic acids to form propanethialS-oxide. It’s a volatile sulfur compound that floats upwards towards your eyes. Next, it reacts with the water in your tears in order to create sulfuric acid. Since this acid burns and stimulates, your eyes need to release tears to remove the irritant.

How to stop crying?

Putting the onions in the refrigerator before cutting will slow reactions and alter the chemicals inside the onions. Or try using a stainless steel or cut them in water.

Clean with soaps

Soaps are made of potassium or sodium fatty acids salts. In a chemical reaction, particularlysaponification, these chemical elementsareknown to create from the hydrolysis of fats. Thanks to a capacity of working as an emulsifying agent, soap is able to scatter one liquid into another immiscible liquid. That means when oil/dirt doesn’t naturally combine with water, using soap can delay and then remove it effectively.

Apply sunscreen on the skin

Before going out in sun or lying on a beach, we often use sunscreen to prevent the ultraviolet rays from damaging your skin. So, how does it work and what an SPF rating means?

Sunscreen mixes inorganic and organic chemicals to filter the sunlight in such a way that less of it arrives at the deeper layer of the skin. Similar to a screen door, although some light might penetrate, not as much as it can reach the skin at all.

SPF means Sun Protection Factor. It’s a number that points out how long you can stay in the sun before getting a sunburn. Commonly, your skin has a natural SPF which is determined by the amount of melanin or how darkly pigmented your skin is.And using the sunscreen is an extra.

For instance, if you’re going to stay out in the sun about 15-20 minutes before burning, the sunscreen with SPF of 10 will be an ideal choice. It’s because it will resist the burn about 150 minutes.

Cook quicker in a pressure cooker

A pressure cooker is designed with an intricate lid that seals the pot totally. When boiling the water, the steam can find no way to escape. Therefore, it stays inside and begins to enhance the pressure. Under this pressure, the temperatures will increase much higher than normal conditions, making cooking faster.

Colorful vegetables

Do you know why fruits and vegetables are highly colored? It’s because they include a particular kind of chemical compound, called carotenoids. Also, these compounds have an area called chromophore, which takes in and gives off specific wavelengths of light, creating the color that you see.

Final thoughts

How does chemistry affect our world?

Now you can answer this question with ease. Since chemistry exists everywhere, learning and understanding the basic properties of matter will help you explain lots of things on Earth. And if you follow other articles on our site, you will find out useful information related to chemistry.

Ductile Definition Chemistry

Have you ever thought that a glossy sheet of gold, a piece of gum or aluminum wire has the same property? If talking about chemistry, all are ductile materials. So, do you know anything about ductile definition chemistry? According to the chemistry glossary, ductility means that a metal’s property can be stretched without breaking.

It’s quite simple, but enough? Of course, not. That’s why we will give a detailed explanation of this definition in such a way that you can understand thoroughly.

Ductility Explained: Definition and Examples

Now, let’s continue bringing out the meaning of the ductility! It’s the measure of a material’s capacity to plastically contort without breaking when being put under a tensile stress that surpasses its yield power. High ductility points out that a material will become more suitable to contort and not break. Meanwhile, low ductility implies that a material is breakable and can fracture before contorting much under a tensile load.

It can be said that ductility depends mainly on the crystal structure and chemical composition of a material and the temp that the ductility is being measured.

One of the great examples of ductility is bridges, especially some constructed of steel. Suppose a seismic activity happens like aftershocks or earthquakes, what then? The bridge will withstand thanks to the metal’s ductility. To the concrete, stretching of the steel during the seism acts as a great prevention to prevent the bridge from incurring or breaking.

Ductility materials: Extra information

The use of metals, especially in metalworking, will give you a clear look at ductility in action. For instance, you might think about jewelers or goldsmiths when mentioning metalworking. Truly, it is just a process of working with metals to generate metal products. So, do you have any idea of the term for a material that is known to be the opposite of ductility? It’s brittleness. Instead of lengthening and stretching, the brittle materials such as cast iron, glass products or concrete can break when experiencing too much tensile stress.

It seems that metals keep the upper hand when talking about kinds of ductile materials, doesn’t it? Let’s see another example of a non-metal material that is ductile as well. Have you ever chewed gum? Yes, of course. Start chewing and try observing the gum when stretching it. It lengthens without breaking, doesn’t it? Moreover, the gum keeps at that length without turning back to its original shape.


Ductility vs Malleability

In some cases, some mistake ductility for malleability. Truly, they are not the same. As outlined above, ductility is a material’s property that can extend without getting broken. Meanwhile, malleability is a material’s property that can contort under compression. And the malleable metals can be beaten or rolled into sheets (e.g. aluminum foil).

In other words, ductility implies that a metal can be altered to another form by twisting, pulling or compressing. Meanwhile, malleability indicates that the metal can be changed in another form via hitting or beating it hard.

A common example of the difference between ductility and malleability is lead. This metal is highly malleability but not highly ductile because of its crystal structure. As you know, the crystal structure of the metals controls how they will contort under stress. And the atomic particles that take shape metals can contort under stress either by stretching away or slipping over each other. Besides, the crystal structure of the ductile metals permits the atoms of the metals to be stretched farther apart, called a “twinning” process.

Let’s take a look at the summary below!

  • The properties of ductility and malleability make the metals contort.
  • Ductility is known as the property of the material that might extend without getting broken. Meanwhile, malleability is known as the property of the material that can contort under compression.
  • The metal’s ductility is measured by checking its tensile power. And the bend test is the ordinarily used test for deciding the ductility of the metal.
  • The malleability of the metals is determined via checking whether or not it might endure without getting damaged.
  • Ductility mentions the capacity of the metal to turn into its form under tensile stress while malleability mentions the capacity of the metal to alter its form under compressive stress.
  • The ductile metals can be stretched into wires; meanwhile, the malleable ones can be beaten and rolled into sheets.



With all above information, we hope that you can understand ductile definition chemistry thoroughly. And don’t miss reading other articles related to this interesting field since you’re guaranteed to increase your knowledge of chemistry better than ever.



Nonvolatile Definition Chemistry

If you want to know anything about nonvolatile definition chemistry, don’t miss important information that we’re going to mention below. Truly, this knowledge is what you learned from school. And we just summarize the main ideas in order to help you understand better.

You can see more:  Factors Affecting The Chemicals In Life


Nonvolatile definition in chemistry

A nonvolatile substance is a substance which does not readily vapor under existing conditions. This is mostly due to their powerful intermolecular forces. The common features of such substances are a lower vapor pressure and high boiling points. In addition, the presence of a solute in a solvent reduces the capacity of that certain solvent to evaporate. But, after evaporation, the nonvolatile solute won’t appear in the vapor phase of the volatile solvent.

Let’s look at some typical examples!

  • Glycerin (C3H8O3) is a nonvolatile liquid. It’s truly a neutral, colorless, sweet-tasting, and thick liquid that freezes to a gummy paste. That’s why glycerin is most commonly used in soap and is also a familiar ingredient in lots of pharmaceuticals.
  • Sugar (sucrose) is a nonvolatile solid. It’s known as a common table sugar that is acquired from sugar cane or sugar beets. In addition, it’s found in fruits and vegetables.
  • Salt (sodium chloride) is another nonvolatile solid. This inorganic compound is essential for our body because it helps us maintain blood pressure and the correct balance of fluid, contract and relax muscles, absorb and transfer nutrients, and convey nerve signals.
  • And so on

Generally, it’s not difficult to determinethe nonvolatile substances if you take into account the materials’ properties that are volatile. You can easily recognize some common volatile substances such as gasoline, perfume or alcoholvia their typical smell. Meanwhile, you don’t smell the nonvolatile materials since they don’t transform from solids or liquids into the vapor phase.


How about volatility in chemistry?


Actually, the best way to know which substance is nonvolatile and volatile is to rely on its smell. You can easily recognize the smell of alcohol surrounding since it readily releases its molecules into the air. So, the volatile substance is the substance that has a higher ability to turn into the vapor phase. It also has much weaker intermolecular attractions. That’s why it can be easily transferred into the vapor phase. Plus, it comes with a high vapor pressure and low boiling point.

Most of the organic substances are volatile because they can be easily divided via distillation or rotating evaporators. Besides, they can evaporate at room temperature when exposed to air because of the weak intermolecular forces. What’s more, you should notice some harmfulvolatile substances because whenreleasing in the atmosphere, they can easily penetrate into your systems through inhalation. From there, they might create dangerous effects on chronic exposure. Or even these substances can bring bad effects on the environment such as ozone layer depletion or global warming.


Difference between nonvolatile and volatile substances

Here are 5 main differences between nonvolatile and volatile substances that you should know.

  • Nonvolatile substances don’t have a high vapor pressure at normal room temperature and pressure while volatile ones come with a high vapor pressure in these conditions.
  • Nonvolatile substances are generally hardly flammable compared to volatile ones.
  • Nonvolatile substances don’t have a tendency to vaporize while the volatile ones do.
  • It’s not easy to detect the nonvolatile substances by smell; however, you can smell the volatile substances.
  • The volume of the nonvolatile liquids won’t decrease if being heated or stored in an open container. But, this happens to volatile liquids.

Watch this video to know more about this difference



In sum



To bring out the final conclusion of nonvolatile definition chemistry. Please memorize two important things.

  • Nonvolatile substances are hard to be transformed to the gaseous phase and they come with higher boiling points and low vapor phase. In contrast, volatile substances can be readily sent into the vapor phase and have the low boiling points.
  • Most of the nonvolatile substances are polar with a powerful interaction between molecules. Meanwhile, the volatile ones are nonpolar and have the weak intermolecular forces. That’s why they don’t have any powerful intermolecular attractions.

Generally, we hope that this article helps you draw a specific look at the nonvolatile and volatile definitions in chemistry. And if you’re interested in this field, you can easily find lots of useful posts here. Check for further information now!





Damaging Effects Of Wastewater on Our Life – What You Need To Know?

From the industrial period, humans have sent a considerable number of chemicals into the environment. Although some help to kill pests and weeds, most of the chemicals are waste from agricultural and industrial processes. Even worse, factories or plants ignore the handling of chemical waste that often leads to a serious result to the water supply. And when streams, rivers, and oceans were poisoned, not only aquatic life suffer but also humans.


If you want to know clearly about damaging effects of wastewater on our life, let’s find out everything in this post below.


Toxic chemicals in the wastewater


Phenol is known as an inexpensive organic material that is usually used in manufacturing plastic, rubber or pharmaceutical products. Due to a low-cost price, it’s produced in huge quantities, mostly as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals like caprolactam or used as synthetic fibers, nylon, bisphenol A, etc.

The maximum number of phenol in a liter of seawater is 5 mg, according to the Australian National Regulations. However, if the content of phenol excesses this number, it becomes poisonous to fishes, birds, and any animals. Moreover, it reduces fertility and life expectancy.

How does it affect human? Unlike other toxins such as heavy metal, phenol doesn’t gather in our body. But, it can break down quickly. Especially, phenol in manufacturing rubber products and tires is able to increase cardiovascular diseases than normal. If you catch some symptoms such as cyanosis, shortness of breath, rapid pulse, reduced body temperature, muscle weakness, and coma, your body is infected by phenol via either skin or digestive absorption.


Similar to phenol, cyanide is a chemical substance used in producing iron, steel or other chemicals and treating sewage. Besides, cyanide and cyanide compounds are one of the parts of pesticides, electroplates, plastics, and mining. Unlike phenol, just a small amount of cyanide creates a damaging effect on fishes and aquatic animals because they are extremely sensitive to this chemical.

If the free cyanide in water ranges from 5-7.2 mg per liter of water, it can lessen inhibit preproduction and swimming performance in fish. In case cyanide excesses 20 mg per liter of water, it can kill many kinds of fishes. And if it is over 200 mg, it becomes toxic to all species.

So, when we’re eating these food products, we’re easily exposed to low concentrations of cyanide. The more we eat, the more cyanide causes serious health effects. Some initial symptoms are dizziness, headache, rapid breathing, vomiting, weak pulse, drowsiness, nausea, and red face. Or some worst conditions can happen such as slow heart rate, convulsions, coma, dilated pupils, and even death.

Ferric hydroxide

Ferric hydroxide takes oxygen from the seawater, oxidizes ferric iron and then hydrolyze it into iron oxide slurry. This chemical substance is able to absorb some toxic substances contained in wastewater. After that, it brings toxin to remote places and settle into the seabed, causing damaging secondary effects.

Aside from three above chemicals, scientists find other metals in wastewater such as copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, and nickel. While some are necessary for our bodies, some might be dangerous if we consume a larger portion.

Common diseases caused by wastewater

Not only does wastewater contain toxic chemicals to our environment and body but also hold a significant number of viruses, bacteria, and parasites that are dangerous to humans.



A bacterium called “vibrio cholerae” is the main cause of a small intestinal disease, known as cholera. You easily acquire these bacteria when drinking or eating contaminated food, even vegetables that have been irrigated with poisoned water. Some usual symptoms that you might catch include vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and abdominal cramps.


Diarrhea is one of the most widespread diseases caused by wastewater. It leads to frequent passage of water and loose stools, causing dehydration and even death to infants and young children. To prevent this disease, you shouldn’t drink or eat anything from unsafe sources. And remember to boil the drinking water or use chemically treated water.


When you get symptoms ranging from mild to extreme diarrhea with blood and mucus, you might catch amoebiasis, which is caused by amoeba in contaminated water.

Typhoid fever

Every year, around 12 million people are caught typhoid fever that is caused when absorbing contaminated water and food into their body. Some common symptoms are the loss of appetite, nausea, fever, constipation, vomiting, and headache.

Intestinal Worms

Parasitic intestinal worms such as whipworms, roundworms or hookworms are often transferred through contaminated food and soil with human feces. According to a recent study, over 10% of people, especially children, have these worms inside their body that might cause growth retardation, anemia, and malnutrition.


Schistosomiasis (also called bilharzia) is caused by worms that are expanded by freshwater snails living in contaminated water. When we wash, swim or wade through these areas, the snails can penetrate our skin to cause infection and damage our intestines, liver, lungs, and bladder.


Due to lacking wastewater treatment, extreme amounts of the phosphorus and nitrogen can invade water sources and create algae bloom. This process is harmful to fish because it avails a lot of oxygen in the water. Furthermore, it comes with an objectionable and strong smell that can influence the taste of water. What’s more, excessive nitrogen in water is injurious to humans since it causes blue baby syndrome or methemoglobinemia or miscarriages.

Hope that this post has helped you understand more about damaging effects of wastewater on our life. And if you have any query related to this topic, don’t mind asking us anything. We’re always there to support you.